The European Commission launched OpenAIRE in 2010 as both an online portal (infrastructure) and a network of helpdesks and experts  (34 National Open Access Desk (NOADs). Its original objective was to support the implementation of the European open access policies: the ERC Scientific Council Guidelines for Open Access (2007) and the Open Access (OA) pilot in FP7.


Zenodo was launched within the frame of the OpenAIRE project, which was commissioned by the European Commission to provide open access to research outputs financed by public funding in Europe. Not all researchers necessarily have access to an institutional repository. Zenodo was designed to help them to comply with the open access requirement. 


The Berkley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is an open source software platform for computing that uses volunteered resources.  

The BOINC platform was developed at the University of Berkeley and started in 2002. BOINC makes it possible to use the unused computing power of many thousands of computers available over the Internet or any Intranet.